Review article

Long yards, courts of honor,inner streets in St. Petersburg as a response to the request of «upper middle class»








The article considers the influence of the «social demand» for the typology of housing and scrutinizes the relationship between architecture and financing of housing construction. The development of residential quarters in St. Petersburg is shown, which has led to the emergence of two chief morphotypes of the living environment - the «facial» and the «intra quarter» ones. It is pointed out that the courts of honour (cour d'honneur) referring to the end of the XIX century may be regarded as the «facial» morphotype spreading to the intra quarter territory. The authors reveal the reasons of courts of honour emerging at that period, such as an increasing demand for high-class apartments, expansion of the residential complexes` territory and the liberalization of urban planning legislation. A crucial importance of economic factors in stimulating this process is emphasized. It is shown how the evolution of residential yards has led to the formation of the developed typology of courts of honour. The courts of honour`s communication forms with an open urban environment are identified. Application practice of the courts of honour in the present conditions is analyzed and its future existence is predicated.


Lavrov L. P. Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering

Novokhodskaia N. S. Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering