Review article

1736-1740-s: new vector of St. Petersburg development








The article considers the functional zoning of the territory of the Admiralteisky Island in St. Petersburg, which had been formed by the beginning of the 1730-s. The evolution of the living environment of sailors and shipyard workers, which was located on both banks of the Moyka River in St. Petersburg, is considered, and the indicators of the urban development compaction taking place during the indicated period are highlighted. The circumstances of the alteration of the urbanization process strategy, which manifested itself in the second half of the 1730-s, are considered. The author emphasizes the fundamental difference between the concept of the times of Peter the Great and the new trend, when artistic and emotional criteria acquired a decisive importance. There are revealed social and economic foundations of forming the system of urban morphotypes. This system has become a tool for the reconstruction of the existing residential area and a means of rational development of new space. The land use system (regulation of the size of parcels) and the alteration in the transport and planning frame (changing of the street route) are proposed to be considered the key tools for the large-scale de-compaction of inhabited districts. The high rates of urban planning transformations of this time and their radical nature are emphasized. A cluster approach to the use of territorial resources and the formation of buildings on the outskirts of the city (late 1730-s - early 1740-s) is noted. A similarity with the modern practice of locating isolated residential complexes in remote areas is shown. It is recommended to take into account the experience of integrating clusters into the urban environment that started to be practiced in the second half of the XVIII century.


Molotkova E. G. Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering St. Petersburg, Russia